Symbols

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Important Common Maths Symbols

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning Example
+ Plus sign Addition 2 + 3 = 5
Minus sign Subtraction 3 − 2 = 1
× Times sign Multiplication 4 × 2 = 8
* Asterisk Multiplication 4 * 2 = 8
Multiplication dot Multiplication 4 ∙ 2= 8
÷ Division sign Division 4 ÷ 2 = 2
/ Division slash Division 4 / 2 = 2
Horizontal line Division / fraction  Formula_algebra_division
± Plus - minus Both plus and minus operations 4 ± 3 = 7 and 1
Minus - plus Both minus and plus operations 4 ∓ 5 = -1 and 9
= Equals sign Equality 7 =  2 + 5
Not equal sign Inequality 3 ≠ 4
> Strict inequality Greater than 6 > 3
< Strict inequality Less than 4 < 7
Inequality Greater than or equal to 6 ≥ 4
Inequality Less than or equal to 3 ≤ 5
( ) Parentheses Calculate expression inside first 4 × (3 + 2) = 20
[ ] Brackets Calculate expression inside first [(1 + 3) × (1 + 2)] = 12
. Period Decimal point, decimal separator 1.26 = 1 + 26/100
ab Power Exponent 3= 27
Formula_ Algebra_Square roots Square root Formula_ Algebra_Square roots1 Formula_ Algebra_Square roots2
 Formula_ Algebra_Cube roots Cube root Formula_ Algebra_Cube roots1 Formula_ Algebra_Cube roots2
% Percent 1% = 1/100 10% × 50 = 5
~ Approximately equal Weak approximation 10.7 ~ 10
Approximately equal Approximation x ≈ y means x is approximately equal to y
Proportional to Proportional to y ∝  x when y = kx, where k is a constant
Implies This implies x = 2 ⇒  x2 = 4
Equivalent If and only if (iff)  
For all ∀ x >1, x2 > x
There exists ∃ x such that x2 > x
Therefore a = b ∴ b=a
Because / since Since a2 = 25, a = 5


Common Set Symbols

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning Example
{ } Set A collection of elements A ={1, 2, 4, 5}

B = {4, 5, 6}

A ∪ B Union Objects that belong to set A or set B A ∪ B = {1, 2, 4, 5, 6}
A ∩ B Intersection Objects that belong to set A and set B A ∩ B = {4, 5}
A ⊆ B Subset Set A has fewer elements or equal to the set B {4, 5, 6} ⊆ B
A ⊂ B Proper subset Set A has some elements of set B {4, 5} ⊂B
A ⊄ B Not a subset Set A is not a subset of B {1, 6} ⊄ A
A ⊇ B Superset Set A has more elements or equal to the set B {1, 2, 4, 5} ⊇{1, 2, 4, 5}
A ⊃ B Proper superset Set A has more elements than set B {1, 2, 4, 5} ⊇{1, 2, 4}
A ⊅ B Not a superset Set A is not a superset of set B {1, 2, 4, 5} ⊅{5, 7}
A = B Equality Both sets A and B have the same members {1, 2, 4, 5} = (1, 2, 4, 5}
A×B Cartesian product Set of all ordered pairs from A and B {1,2} × {3,4}
= {(1,3), (1,4), (2,3), (2,4)}
Ac Complement All the objects that do not belong to set A  Ac = {3, 6} when U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
A - B Difference Objects that belong to A and not to B {1, 2, 4, 5} − {4, 5} = {1,2}
a∈A An element of The element a is in set A.  4 ∈ {1, 2, 4, 5}
x∉A Not an element of The element a is not in set A.  6 ∉ {1, 2, 4, 5}
|A| Cardinality The number of elements of set A A = {1, 2, 4, 5}, |A|=4
Ø Empty set Ø = { } {1, 2} ∩ {5 ,6} = Ø
U Universal set Set of all possible values  Normally, universal set in mathematics is the set of real numbers R.
N Natural numbers N = {1, 2, 3, 4,...} 1 ∈ N
W Whole numbers W = {0, 1, 2,3,4,5,...} 0 ∈ W
Z Integer numbers set Z = {…-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3…} -7 ∈ Z
Q Rational numbers set Q = {| x = a/ba, b∈ Z } 2/5 ∈ Q
R Real numbers set R = {x | -∞ < x <∞} 6.353535 ∈ R


Common Geometry Symbols

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning Example
  ∠ Angle A figure formed by two rays. ∠ABC = 30o
 ∟ Right angle An angle which is equal to 90º. ∠ABC = 90o
  Δ Triangle Triangle shape ΔABC has  3 sides.
  o Degree 1 turn = 360 o 360° makes a full circle.
 Formula_Geometry_Line Line Infinite line  The infinite line that includes A and B:
Formula_Geometry_Line
Formula_Geometry_Line1 Line segment Line from point A to point B  The line between A and B:
Formula_Geometry_Line1
Formula_Geometry_ray Ray Line that start from point A  The line that starts at A, goes through B and continues on:
Formula_Geometry_ray
Formula_Geometry_arc Arc Arc from point A to point B Formula_Geometry_arc
  ⊥ Perpendicular Perpendicular lines (90º angle) AC ⊥ BC
  || Parallel Parallel lines AB || CD
  ≅ Congruent to Same shape and size ∆ABC ≅ ∆XYZ
 ~ Similarity Same shapes, not same size ∆ABC ~ ∆XYZ
 |y| Distance Distance between points x and y y | = 5